James Penfold was amongst the invited experts from 16 countries. In his first presentation James reflected on radiological protection and other issues with recycling radioactively contaminated material in concrete. He concluded that whilst this is a potentially important opportunity there remain some significant barriers to exploiting it. His second presentation considered how the management of VLLW in the UK has evolved over the years. This concluded that recent efforts by Government, NDA, regulators and industry were bearing fruit in terms of a strategy that is more sustainable and optimised than exists in most countries.