At the top level a series of sub-models for the near-field, geosphere and biosphere can be implemented in AMBER, and these can be further discretised. Typically the following processes are included in the model:
- container failure;
- leaching from the waste due to infiltration of rainwater;
- water-borne transport through the engineered structure and unsaturated zone;
- advection and dispersion through an aquifer;
- abstraction of irrigation and other water;
- leaching from the soil due to water infiltration;
- erosion from the soil;
- ingestion of drinking water;
- ingestion of soil;
- external irradiation from soil;
- inhalation of suspended atmospheric material;
- ingestion of meat and milk;
- ingestion of crops.
Quintessa staff have delivered a number of training courses on near-surface disposal modelling and wider aspects of safety assessment in support of the IAEA radioactive waste safety programme.