# Analytics & Data Science

Data science is the extraction of knowledge from data, and analytics is the discovery and communication of meaningful patterns in data. Data analysis techniques are many and varied and the choice of technique for a given activity is not always obvious. Where the data is ‘unusual’ or where highly domain-specific answers are sought, often new or tailored techniques must be developed.

The term data analysis has been in use since before the advent of the computer era. Originally considered as an extension of mathematical statistics, cluster analysis and other multivariate techniques have been developed since the early 20^{th} century. Nowadays, data analysis is generally used to describe activities in which either:

- Data is used to fit and/or test mathematical models, with a view to then using the models to make predictions; or
- Data is ‘mined’ to enhance and augment knowledge of the domain from which the data originates.

The first of these activities is usually approached using classical statistics, where typically a problem is proposed first, with the investigators then utilising the data to progress towards a viable model. In the latter case the data often comes first, with the problem being to try and infer structure or patterns in the data in order to make sense of it. However these two approaches are not exclusive and a combination or hybrid approach can often lead to an optimal technique.

As with other areas of Quintessa’s work, the key is working in partnership with our clients to develop a thorough understanding of the data and the problem to be addressed. Only with this detailed understanding can tailored techniques be developed that deliver maximal value.

The current trend is big data analytics, aimed at gaining useful knowledge from vast quantities of digital data. Quintessa’s mathematically based approach can be applied to such problems but most of our experience to date has focused on extracting the maximum value out of relatively small data sets, for which the acquisition of each data point requires considerable time and/or resources.

For example, Quintessa has worked with EDF Energy to develop statistical models of the evolution of the graphite core of Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs) based on measurements of the core and reactor operational data, and on pattern recognition approaches in novel drug discovery applications.